[FoRK] Attacking Tor: how the NSA targets users' online anonymity

Eugen Leitl eugen at leitl.org
Wed Oct 9 02:37:07 PDT 2013


(Use VM jails with amnesiac distros like Tails for daily browsing, 
separate security compartments using CubeOS and related, use air 
gap with USB sneakernet (using *nix with no USB autorun) to 
encrypt/decrypt and maintain sensitive information in general).

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/04/tor-attacks-nsa-users-online-anonymity

Attacking Tor: how the NSA targets users' online anonymity

Secret servers and a privileged position on the internet's backbone used to
identify users and attack target computers

Bruce Schneier

theguardian.com, Friday 4 October 2013 15.50 BST

Tor is a well-designed and robust anonymity tool, and successfully attacking
it is difficult. Photograph: Magdalena Rehova/Alamy

The online anonymity network Tor is a high-priority target for the National
Security Agency. The work of attacking Tor is done by the NSA's application
vulnerabilities branch, which is part of the systems intelligence
directorate, or SID. The majority of NSA employees work in SID, which is
tasked with collecting data from communications systems around the world.

According to a top-secret NSA presentation provided by the whistleblower
Edward Snowden, one successful technique the NSA has developed involves
exploiting the Tor browser bundle, a collection of programs designed to make
it easy for people to install and use the software. The trick identified Tor
users on the internet and then executes an attack against their Firefox web
browser.

The NSA refers to these capabilities as CNE, or computer network
exploitation.

The first step of this process is finding Tor users. To accomplish this, the
NSA relies on its vast capability to monitor large parts of the internet.
This is done via the agency's partnership with US telecoms firms under
programs codenamed Stormbrew, Fairview, Oakstar and Blarney.

The NSA creates "fingerprints" that detect http requests from the Tor network
to particular servers. These fingerprints are loaded into NSA database
systems like XKeyscore, a bespoke collection and analysis tool which NSA
boasts allows its analysts to see "almost everything" a target does on the
internet.

Using powerful data analysis tools with codenames such as Turbulence, Turmoil
and Tumult, the NSA automatically sifts through the enormous amount of
internet traffic that it sees, looking for Tor connections.

Last month, Brazilian TV news show Fantastico showed screenshots of an NSA
tool that had the ability to identify Tor users by monitoring internet
traffic.

The very feature that makes Tor a powerful anonymity service, and the fact
that all Tor users look alike on the internet, makes it easy to differentiate
Tor users from other web users. On the other hand, the anonymity provided by
Tor makes it impossible for the NSA to know who the user is, or whether or
not the user is in the US.

After identifying an individual Tor user on the internet, the NSA uses its
network of secret internet servers to redirect those users to another set of
secret internet servers, with the codename FoxAcid, to infect the user's
computer. FoxAcid is an NSA system designed to act as a matchmaker between
potential targets and attacks developed by the NSA, giving the agency
opportunity to launch prepared attacks against their systems.

Once the computer is successfully attacked, it secretly calls back to a
FoxAcid server, which then performs additional attacks on the target computer
to ensure that it remains compromised long-term, and continues to provide
eavesdropping information back to the NSA.

Exploiting the Tor browser bundle

Tor is a well-designed and robust anonymity tool, and successfully attacking
it is difficult. The NSA attacks we found individually target Tor users by
exploiting vulnerabilities in their Firefox browsers, and not the Tor
application directly.

This, too, is difficult. Tor users often turn off vulnerable services like
scripts and Flash when using Tor, making it difficult to target those
services. Even so, the NSA uses a series of native Firefox vulnerabilities to
attack users of the Tor browser bundle.

According to the training presentation provided by Snowden,
EgotisticalGiraffe exploits a type confusion vulnerability in E4X, which is
an XML extension for Javascript. This vulnerability exists in Firefox 11.0 –
16.0.2, as well as Firefox 10.0 ESR – the Firefox version used until recently
in the Tor browser bundle. According to another document, the vulnerability
exploited by EgotisticalGiraffe was inadvertently fixed when Mozilla removed
the E4X library with the vulnerability, and when Tor added that Firefox
version into the Tor browser bundle, but NSA were confident that they would
be able to find a replacement Firefox exploit that worked against version
17.0 ESR.

The Quantum system

To trick targets into visiting a FoxAcid server, the NSA relies on its secret
partnerships with US telecoms companies. As part of the Turmoil system, the
NSA places secret servers, codenamed Quantum, at key places on the internet
backbone. This placement ensures that they can react faster than other
websites can. By exploiting that speed difference, these servers can
impersonate a visited website to the target before the legitimate website can
respond, thereby tricking the target's browser to visit a Foxacid server.

In the academic literature, these are called "man-in-the-middle" attacks, and
have been known to the commercial and academic security communities. More
specifically, they are examples of "man-on-the-side" attacks.

They are hard for any organization other than the NSA to reliably execute,
because they require the attacker to have a privileged position on the
internet backbone, and exploit a "race condition" between the NSA server and
the legitimate website. This top-secret NSA diagram, made public last month,
shows a Quantum server impersonating Google in this type of attack.

The NSA uses these fast Quantum servers to execute a packet injection attack,
which surreptitiously redirects the target to the FoxAcid server. An article
in the German magazine Spiegel, based on additional top secret Snowden
documents, mentions an NSA developed attack technology with the name of
QuantumInsert that performs redirection attacks. Another top-secret Tor
presentation provided by Snowden mentions QuantumCookie to force cookies onto
target browsers, and another Quantum program to "degrade/deny/disrupt Tor
access".

This same technique is used by the Chinese government to block its citizens
from reading censored internet content, and has been hypothesized as a
probable NSA attack technique.

The FoxAcid system

According to various top-secret documents provided by Snowden, FoxAcid is the
NSA codename for what the NSA calls an "exploit orchestrator," an
internet-enabled system capable of attacking target computers in a variety of
different ways. It is a Windows 2003 computer configured with custom software
and a series of Perl scripts. These servers are run by the NSA's tailored
access operations, or TAO, group. TAO is another subgroup of the systems
intelligence directorate.

The servers are on the public internet. They have normal-looking domain
names, and can be visited by any browser from anywhere; ownership of those
domains cannot be traced back to the NSA.

However, if a browser tries to visit a FoxAcid server with a special URL,
called a FoxAcid tag, the server attempts to infect that browser, and then
the computer, in an effort to take control of it. The NSA can trick browsers
into using that URL using a variety of methods, including the race-condition
attack mentioned above and frame injection attacks.

FoxAcid tags are designed to look innocuous, so that anyone who sees them
would not be suspicious. An example of one such tag [LINK REMOVED] is given
in another top-secret training presentation provided by Snowden.

There is no currently registered domain name by that name; it is just an
example for internal NSA training purposes.

The training material states that merely trying to visit the homepage of a
real FoxAcid server will not result in any attack, and that a specialized URL
is required. This URL would be created by TAO for a specific NSA operation,
and unique to that operation and target. This allows the FoxAcid server to
know exactly who the target is when his computer contacts it.

According to Snowden, FoxAcid is a general CNE system, used for many types of
attacks other than the Tor attacks described here. It is designed to be
modular, with flexibility that allows TAO to swap and replace exploits if
they are discovered, and only run certain exploits against certain types of
targets.

The most valuable exploits are saved for the most important targets.
Low-value exploits are run against technically sophisticated targets where
the chance of detection is high. TAO maintains a library of exploits, each
based on a different vulnerability in a system. Different exploits are
authorized against different targets, depending on the value of the target,
the target's technical sophistication, the value of the exploit, and other
considerations.

In the case of Tor users, FoxAcid might use EgotisticalGiraffe against their
Firefox browsers.

FoxAcid servers also have sophisticated capabilities to avoid detection and
to ensure successful infection of its targets. One of the top-secret
documents provided by Snowden demonstrates how FoxAcid can circumvent
commercial products that prevent malicious software from making changes to a
system that survive a reboot process.

According to a top-secret operational management procedures manual provided
by Snowden, once a target is successfully exploited it is infected with one
of several payloads. Two basic payloads mentioned in the manual, are designed
to collect configuration and location information from the target computer so
an analyst can determine how to further infect the computer.

These decisions are made in part by the technical sophistication of the
target and the security software installed on the target computer; called
Personal Security Products or PSP, in the manual.

FoxAcid payloads are updated regularly by TAO. For example, the manual refers
to version 8.2.1.1 of one of them.

FoxAcid servers also have sophisticated capabilities to avoid detection and
to ensure successful infection of its targets. The operations manual states
that a FoxAcid payload with the codename DireScallop can circumvent
commercial products that prevent malicious software from making changes to a
system that survive a reboot process.

The NSA also uses phishing attacks to induce users to click on FoxAcid tags.

TAO additionally uses FoxAcid to exploit callbacks – which is the general
term for a computer infected by some automatic means – calling back to the
NSA for more instructions and possibly to upload data from the target
computer.

According to a top-secret operational management procedures manual, FoxAcid
servers configured to receive callbacks are codenamed FrugalShot. After a
callback, the FoxAcid server may run more exploits to ensure that the target
computer remains compromised long term, as well as install "implants"
designed to exfiltrate data.

By 2008, the NSA was getting so much FoxAcid callback data that they needed
to build a special system to manage it all.


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